[An-lang] about loan words

Adrian Clynes aclynes at gmail.com
Sat Jul 18 14:00:18 UTC 2015

A belated comment re Brunei Malay. Waruno writes that "postglottalisation
of originally final vowels (typically -a) [...] is a feature of Banjarese
and Brunei Malay." This is often said of Brunei Malay, but it is in fact a
purely phrase-final, and optional, phonetic feature. It might be heard eg.
in eliciting wordlists, hence an erroneous conclusion that it is a lexical
feature. Lexically, historical final a remains just that in Brunei Malay.
Adrian Clynes

On Tue, Jul 7, 2015 at 7:59 PM, Waruno Mahdi <mahdi at fhi-berlin.mpg.de>

> Dear Piers,
> Sorry to be so slow to respond.
> With regard to borrowings into Tagalog from Malay, and also from
> Sanskrit and Arabic (presumably also Tamil and Persian), the
> situation may be much more complicated than first meets the eye.
> Borrowing from Malay continued over a period of one millennium or
> more (since around the 8th century), during which time various
> Malay dialects acted as donor. The most conspicuous effect is the
> postglottalisation of originally final vowels (typically -a).
> This is a feature of Banjarese and Brunei Malay and suggests that
> at least some of the borrowings exhibiting such postglottalisation
> took place during Brunei paramountcy over parts of the Philippines.
> With regard to borrowings from Sanskrit (also Tamil, Arabic, Persian),
> the greater majority was borrowed via Malay, i.e. these are actually
> borrowings from Malay as well. Here again, some will have post-
> glottalised final vowels, others not, depending on the final donor
> dialect. This too is a simplification, because within Malay too,
> there was significant inter-dialectal borrowing.
> This is apparent amongst others from a postglottalised final vowel in
> a non-postglottalising dialect. Thus, in Standard Malay _datuk_
> "chief",
> final -k of the spelling denotes glottal stop. The Old Malay form of
> the word is _datu_ "ruler". The second component in _barat-daya_
> "southwest" and the word _Dayak_ 'hinterland inhabitant of Kalimantan"
> are cognate, deriving from the same Proto-Austronesian *daya "interior,
> upriver".
> Borrowings from Chinese apparently were not mediated by Malay, but I am
> not informed about whether they were all borrowed from the same Chinese
> dialect. I rather doubt that. Furthermore, during a significant period
> there was an Archipelagian dialect of Chinese, spoken in Chinese
> trader settlements in presentday Indonesia. Their word for "clove", was
> even borrowed into standard Indonesian Malay as _cengkéh_, replacing
> the
> older original Malay word (_lawang_. which presently means "mace, skin
> of the nutmeg kernl"). It seems likely that some Chinese borrowings in
> Tagalog too originated from the Archipelagian Chinese.
> Will try to look up bibliographic references and let you know later.
> Aloha,
> Waruno
> On 2015-07-07 04:49, Piers Kelly wrote:
> > Thanks all for your responses.
> >
> > I have managed to consult Panganibans _Diksyunaryo_ of 1972 which
> > includes the following statement:
> >
> > "This Diksyunaryu-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles has 27,069 main word
> > entries
> > accompanied by almost 217,500 lexical items distributed among [...]
> > 12,000 loan words (Sp., Eng., Ch., Ind.-European languages);"
> >
> > However, in his Introduction to Leo James Englishs_ English–Tagalog
> > dictionary_ (1965), he is more specific and writes, "The present
> > Tagalog-based Pilipino is estimated as having around 30,000
> > root-words
> > and around 700 affixes. Of the root-words, the recognizable loans at
> > this time are, in round numbers, 5,000 from Spanish, 3,200 from
> > Malayo-Indonesian, 1,500 from Chinese, 1,500 from English, 300 from
> > Sanskrit, 250 from Arabaic and a few hundred altogether from Mexican,
> > persian, Japanese, Russian and other languages." n.d.
> >
> > The other suggested sources that I have been able to consult tend to
> > describe loans without quantifying them, although some (eg, Gloria
> > Chan-Yap) break down loans by semantic domain. Ill see how I go with
> > Manuel sources too.
> >
> > Thanks again!
> >
> > Piers
> >
> > ......<SNIP>
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