Non-IE words in Early Celtic

Rick Mc Callister rmccalli at sunmuw1.MUW.Edu
Thu Feb 25 16:10:58 UTC 1999

Here are some possible additions to Donncha's list:
I'd appreciate discussion of these. All I've done is compile these.

	@blu "apple" [NC Europe non-IE] > *ap[a]laz [Germanic] > *aeppel
[OE] > apple, limited to Germanic [OHG apful], Celtic [O Ir uball], Welsh
afal; Italic [Oscan Abella "apple town"]; & Balto-Slavic [O Sl ablûko, OCS
jabl'ko, Lith. óbuolas] non-IE [am, eh]
@bel-n "apple tree" [see Lith. obelìs, OCS jablan', O Ir aball, Welsh
afall] [eh]
	aliso/eliso > *alisa: [Celtic], *alisa [Gothic] > Erle f., aller >
alder; ?aliso [Spanish]; [< Vasconic?, e.g. Basque altza] [acc. cw < IE
*ei- "red, brown"] [g&i, tv1/99] [?rel to ellen, ellaern [OE] > elder? cw]
	brák, "trousers." A northern European word found only in Celtic and
Germanic. Germanic bróks < breech, breeks. Gaulish *bráka < Latin bráca,
"trousers," < bracket, brail. [cw]
	brugyo > brycg/e [OE] > bridge [cognates in Celtic & Slavic] [acc.
cw <? IE *bhru- "brow"] [cw]
	bukkaz "male goat, deer, etc." > bok [Dutch], boc [OHG] > Bock, buc
[OE], bucca [OE] > buck; bukkos "male goat" [Celtic; ?source of bukkaz?] >
boc "buck" [OFr] > butcher [acc. cw < ?IE *bhugo-] [cw] [found only in
Celtic & Germanic?] [cw]
	dunum "fortified place" [Celtic] ?> du:naz [Germanic] > du:n "hill"
[OE] > down; > du:ne [M Dutch] > dune; *tu:naz [Germanic, <? Celtic
*du:n-o- "hill, stronghold"?] "fortified place" > town, Zaun [Celtic &
Germanic only]  [< ?Afro-Asiatic "Atlantic"; see AKK dunnunu "fortified"]
[cw, tv97]
	gwet- "resin?" [Celtic & Germanic] > *gwet-u > kwithu- [OE] >
cwudu, cwidu, cudu "resin, mastic gum, cud, i.e. something chewed" [OE] >
cud, quid; > *betu- "birch, birch resin" [Celtic] > bitumen [Latin <
Gaulish] > bitumen, [cw] > betún "bitumen, wax, asphalt, shoe polish, etc."
	i:sarno- "iron" > iron Eisen n. [found in Celtic & Germanic] [<
?Vasconic *isar "star" see Basque izar "star"] [mcv2/98, tv2/98]
	kante [Celtic, Germanic, Italic non IE] > Kante "edge" [<
?Vasconic; see Basque kantu "slice, angle, rocks", common in Iberian
toponymy] [tv97, tv95]
	l at k- > lake, lacus [Latin], loch [Gaelic] [Celtic /o/ does not
match Latin /a/, suggesting it may have originally been /@/] [eh]
	lugyom "oath" [Celtic, Germanic] > liuga "marriage" [Goth], luge [O
Ir] [tlm] [related to "league", "link"?] [cw & another source tv?]
	ru:no- "mystery, secret" [Germanic, Celtic] > ru:naz > ru:nian [OE]
"to whisper" [OE] > round; r:un [ON] > rune, runo "song, poem" [Finnish]
[cw & another source tv?]

	Hamp, Eric. "The Pre-IE Language of Northern (Central) Europe".
When Worlds Collide. [eh]
	Carrasquer Vidal, Miguel  [e-mail] [mcv]
	Meillet, Antoine. General Characteristics of Indo-European, 1929.
	Vennemann, Theo  "Bemerkung zum frühgermanischen Wortschatz." Fs.
Matzel, Heidelberg 1984, 105-19. [tv/84]
	--- "Etymologische Beziehungen im Alten Europa", Der GinkgoBaum:
Germanistisches Jahrbuch für Nordeuropa 13 (1995), 39-115. [tv/95]
	--- "Some West Indo-European words of uncertain origin." Fs.
Fisiak. Berlin 1997, I.879-908. [tv/97]
	Waterman, John T. A History of the German Language. Seattle: U Wash
P, 1966.
	Watkins, Calvert. Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, rev. Boston:
Houghton, 1985.

	I've also seens claims that the following Gaelic words are non-IE
	da/l "house, linage"
	rath "ring fort" [although this seems to me like it could be
related to an IE for wheeel < *ret- "to roll" (as per cw)]
	and also the ethnonym Attacotti "ancient people" and the toponym
Laoghis [sp?]/Lewis  "heights, cliff" if I remember correctly

>Words found only in Insular Celtic:
>*ma^ni^  >  Irish "mo/in" (peat; bogland)
>            Welsh "mawn" (peat)
>*me^no-  >  Irish "mi/an" (desire; object of desire)
>            Welsh "mwyn" (gentle, dear; delightful)
>*banwa^  >  Irish "banb" (young pig)
>            Welsh "banw" (young pig)
>A word found in Common Celtic:
>*makwo-  >  Gaulish "Maponos"
>            Irish "mac" (son)
>            Welsh "mab" (son)

	Here's what Hamp & Watkins have to say about this:
m at k-ú > *mag at th > maegethe, m at két, maegden [OE] "girl" > maiden [cw, eh]
m at k-ú > *me at k-ó > *me:kó > *mêkó- > *mégaz > mág "kinsman" [OE] [eh]
m at k-ú > *me at k-ó > *me:kó > *mêkó- > *me:kón- > *megan- > mága "son" [OE] [eh]
m at k-ú- > *m at kw-o- > *makwo "son" [Celtic] > macc [O IR], maqqa [Oghamic],
mapo > mab > ap [Welsh] [eh]
m at ghu- > *magu "servant" > mug [O Ir], meu-dwy [Welsh] [eh]
maguz "son" > magu [OE], *magwi: > mawi [Gothic] [eh]
CW notes IE *maghu- "youth" [cw]

>A word found in Western European only:
>*wa^t-  >  Latin "vatis" (seer)
>           Irish "fa/ith" (seer)
>           Welsh "gwawd" (song, poetry)
>           Irish "fa/th" (maxim)
>           AnSax "wo^d" (frenzy)
>           AnSax "wo^th" (poem)
>Dennis King

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