'like'/'manner' as Purpose clause marker
yvoennche at GMAIL.COM
Tue Aug 16 12:13:28 UTC 2011
I am looking for languages in which a morpheme meaning 'like' or 'manner' is
used to mark purpose clauses.
Here are some examples from Kambaata (Cushitic, Ethiopia) to clarify what I
am looking for. In Kambaata, the enclitic morpheme =ga 'like' is used, among
others, in the following constructions:
Noun=like means 'like / in the manner of Noun'
adanch-o=ga ga'l-a agg-oomm
cat.SG-fGEN=LIKE shard-mOBL drink-1sPFV
'I drank from a shard LIKE a cat.'
Relative clause=like functions as a complement clause e.g. with verbs of
cognition ('know'), perception ('hear'), utterance ('say'), manipulation
('tell s.o. to do s.th., cause s.o. to s.o.)
who.PRED-DISBELIEF say-2sIPFV-1sO.REL=LIKE know-1sIPFV
'I know THAT (lit. "like") you will say to me "Who is [this]?!".
Relative clause=like functions as a purpose clause ('in order to'/'so
mann-u [...] hoog-umb-o=ga
'They [= horses] carry people so that (lit. "like") they don't become
(A translation that better reflects the Kambaata word order: 'So that (lit.
"like") people do not become tired, they [= horses] carry them.')
Cross-linguistically, it is widely attested that 'like' can grammaticalise
into a complement clause marker (usually via a quotative function) but I
haven't come across many examples of 'like'/manner being used as a marker
of PURPOSE clauses outside of Ethiopian languages. (In Ethio-Semitic, North
Omotic and East Cushitic languages, however, it is quite common to use
like/manner as a purpose clause marker.) The only non-Ethiopian example
I could find so far is quoted in Schmidtke-Bode (2009: 76).
Supyire (Gur: Mali, Carlson 1994: 586)
Pi na wyige turu
ba pi gu m-pyi
they PROG hole.DEF dig.IMPF like
they POT FP-do
si lwOhO ta mE
SUBJ water get like
'They are digging the hole in order to get water.' (lit. "They are digging a
hole as if they were to get some water.")
(NB: In the example above, tone marking was left out; E = open 'e', O = open
Do you know of other languages in which 'like' or 'manner' is used as a
marker of purpose clauses? Id be interested to know about languages that 1)
use like/manner in purpose but NOT in complement clauses, 2) languages
that use like/manner in purpose AND complement clauses, 3) languages
that use like/manner as the primary means to mark purpose clauses, 4)
languages that use like/manner as one out of several means to mark
purpose clauses, etc.
Any comments and references would be much appreciated! I will post a summary
if there are enough responses.
Carlson, Robert 1994. A grammar of Supyire. Berlin, New York: Mouton de
Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten 2009. A typology of purpose clauses. Amsterdam,
Dr Yvonne Treis
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
LLACAN - UMR 8135 du CNRS
Centre Georges Haudricourt, Bat. C
7, rue Guy Môquet B.P. 8
94801 Villejuif Cedex
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
More information about the Lingtyp