AW: 'like'/'manner' as Purpose clause marker
koenig at ZEDAT.FU-BERLIN.DE
Tue Aug 16 13:34:03 UTC 2011
in Germanic languages SO is generally used both as an exophoric (English
lost that use) and as an endophoric deictic/anaphoric element with the
meaning in the manner indicated (by gestures, antecedents or following
expressions). More often than not this expression (and its relevant
counterparts) is also part of a conjunction (SO DASS in German, SO THAT in
English) that encodes purpose especially in clauses with subjects different
from those of the main clause:
(i) John has to earn a lot, so that his family can
The translation of your example (4) is exactly of this kind.
In connection with gradable predicates in the main clause we find closely
related comparatives constructions:
(ii) John works so hard that he nearly collapses in the
(iii) John works hard, so that he nearly collapses in the
Your final example comes out in German as either of the following, which
differ slightly in meaning though:
(iv) Sie graben das Loch SO, dass sie WASSER bekommen.
(v) Sie graben das Loch, so dass sie WASSER bekommen.
The general path of grammaticalization or semantic extension thus seems to
go from carrying out an action in such a manner or having a property to such
a degree that this can give rise top some intended effect or result. It is
the cataphoric use of the manner deictic that exhibits this development.
I hope this helps a little.
Ekkehard Koenig (FU Berlin)
Von: Discussion List for ALT [mailto:LINGTYP at LISTSERV.LINGUISTLIST.ORG] Im
Auftrag von Yvonne Treis
Gesendet: Dienstag, 16. August 2011 14:13
An: LINGTYP at LISTSERV.LINGUISTLIST.ORG
Betreff: 'like'/'manner' as Purpose clause marker
I am looking for languages in which a morpheme meaning 'like' or 'manner' is
used to mark purpose clauses.
Here are some examples from Kambaata (Cushitic, Ethiopia) to clarify what I
am looking for. In Kambaata, the enclitic morpheme =ga 'like' is used, among
others, in the following constructions:
Noun=like means 'like / in the manner of Noun'
adanch-o=ga ga'l-a agg-oomm
cat.SG-fGEN=LIKE shard-mOBL drink-1sPFV
'I drank from a shard LIKE a cat.'
Relative clause=like functions as a complement clause e.g. with verbs of
cognition ('know'), perception ('hear'), utterance ('say'), manipulation
('tell s.o. to do s.th., cause s.o. to s.o.)
who.PRED-DISBELIEF say-2sIPFV-1sO.REL=LIKE know-1sIPFV
'I know THAT (lit. "like") you will say to me "Who is [this]?!".
Relative clause=like functions as a purpose clause ('in order to'/'so
mann-u [...] hoog-umb-o=ga
'They [= horses] carry people so that (lit. "like") they don't become
(A translation that better reflects the Kambaata word order: 'So that (lit.
"like") people do not become tired, they [= horses] carry them.')
Cross-linguistically, it is widely attested that 'like' can grammaticalise
into a complement clause marker (usually via a quotative function) but I
haven't come across many examples of 'like'/manner being used as a marker
of PURPOSE clauses outside of Ethiopian languages. (In Ethio-Semitic, North
Omotic and East Cushitic languages, however, it is quite common to use
like/manner as a purpose clause marker.) The only non-Ethiopian example
I could find so far is quoted in Schmidtke-Bode (2009: 76).
Supyire (Gur: Mali, Carlson 1994: 586)
Pi na wyige turu
ba pi gu m-pyi
they PROG hole.DEF dig.IMPF like
they POT FP-do
si lwOhO ta mE
SUBJ water get like
'They are digging the hole in order to get water.' (lit. "They are digging a
hole as if they were to get some water.")
(NB: In the example above, tone marking was left out; E = open 'e', O = open
Do you know of other languages in which 'like' or 'manner' is used as a
marker of purpose clauses? Id be interested to know about languages that 1)
use like/manner in purpose but NOT in complement clauses, 2) languages
that use like/manner in purpose AND complement clauses, 3) languages
that use like/manner as the primary means to mark purpose clauses, 4)
languages that use like/manner as one out of several means to mark
purpose clauses, etc.
Any comments and references would be much appreciated! I will post a summary
if there are enough responses.
Carlson, Robert 1994. A grammar of Supyire. Berlin, New York: Mouton de
Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten 2009. A typology of purpose clauses. Amsterdam,
Dr Yvonne Treis
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
LLACAN - UMR 8135 du CNRS
Centre Georges Haudricourt, Bat. C
7, rue Guy Môquet B.P. 8
94801 Villejuif Cedex
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
More information about the Lingtyp