[Lingtyp] Any references on temporal relative clauses - Oceanic and Bislama

Alex Francois francois at vjf.cnrs.fr
Tue Dec 11 11:27:14 UTC 2018

dear Jesús,

In case you're interested in more examples from the Oceanic family, then
the following paper cites two languages of northern Vanuatu, namely *Hiw*
 and *Lo-Toga*:

   - François, Alexandre. 2010. *Pragmatic demotion and clause dependency:
   On two atypical subordinating strategies in Lo-Toga and Hiw (Torres,
   In Isabelle Bril (ed.), *Clause hierarchy and Clause linking: The Syntax
   and Pragmatics interface*. Amsterdam, New York: Benjamins. Pp.499-548.

See examples & discussion on pp.509-510; p.521; p.525; p.539.

In these two close languages, adverbial time clauses are based on a noun
meaning 'time, moment'  (Hiw *taketimer̄ën*; Lo-Toga *mowe*).

The relativising syntax is sometimes explicit, sometimes implicit;  and
there are sometimes good reasons to propose that the noun is itself
grammaticalizing into an adverbial subordinator ['moment (that)' > 'when'].
Cf. ex.(19) from Hiw, and ex.(45) from Lo-Toga:

(19)   Ike  yo-ie   ti     *timer̄ën pe   kimir̄e  në   **yumegov që*…
          2sg   see-3sg  PRF    time          SUB   2du         STAT
young         still
        ‘You met her when you both were still young.’

(45)  *Mowe     kemë   vë    da-togin*,  nike  vēn  me    dege   n̄wule.
        time/when   1excl:pl   SBJV   be-ready       2sg      go     hither
 1incl:pl  return
        ‘When we’re ready, you can come here so we can go back together.’


Vanuatu's national pidgin-creole, *Bislama*, has a parallel structure with
the noun~subordinator *taem*  [<Eng. *time*].
If for instance you take the Human rights declaration in Bislama ["Deklereisen
Blong Raet Blong Evri Man Mo Woman Raon Wol
<https://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Documents/UDHR_Translations/bcy.pdf>"], you
find many examples of Bislama *taem*.

Article 16 (which you can listen to here
<https://udhr.audio/UDHR_Video.asp?lng=bis&p=16>) includes the following 2


(Eng.1 <http://www.claiminghumanrights.org/udhr_article_16.html#at17> Men
and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or
religion, have the right to marry and to found a family.
*They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at
its dissolution*.)

(Bsl.1) Oli gat raet long ikwel raet long saed blong maret,
           long *taem* blong maret     mo long *taem* *we*  oli disolvem

           OBL   time     POSS    marriage     and  OBL    time     SUB
 3pl dissolve       marriage

lit.       ‘… at the time of the marriage, and *at the time that* they
dissolve the marriage.’

This example clearly treats *taem* as a noun:  cf.  possessive structure (
*blong*), preposition *long* 'OBL' + subordinator / relativiser *we*.


(Eng. <http://www.claiminghumanrights.org/udhr_article_16.html#at17>2
<http://www.claiminghumanrights.org/udhr_article_16.html#at17>  Marriage
shall be entered into *only with the free and full consent of the intending

(Bsl.2) Maret    bambae i=  tekemples  nomo  *taem  we*  hemi
           marriage   FUT          3sg  happen           only       time
  SUB   3sg

           tingting blong man mo woman ia    blong tufala  i=  maret.
           idea          POSS    man  and   woman   DEM   POSS   3du
 3npl= marry

lit.       ‘Marriage will only happen *when ~ if* it is the idea
           of that man and woman who are about to marry.’

Finally, this bit from Article 25
<https://udhr.audio/UDHR_Video.asp?lng=bis&p=25> leans towards
grammaticalization  [time > when]

(Eng. <http://www.claiminghumanrights.org/udhr_article_25.html#at27>3
<http://www.claiminghumanrights.org/udhr_article_25.html#at27>  the right
to security *in the event of unemployment,* (...) *old age or other lack of
livelihood* (...).)

(Bsl.3) raet  long  sekuriti  long  taem  we  man  o  woman  i     no
 wok, (...),

           right   OBL     security     OBL     time     SUB   man   or
 woman     3npl  NEG  work

           *taem       hemi  olfala o  taem     hemi  no  save  gat   wan
gudfala laef *(...)
           time/when   3sg       old       or  time/when   3sg      NEG
able    have   INDEF good       life

lit.       ‘… the right to security when a man or woman does not work (...)
           when (s)he's old, or when (s)he cannot have a good life.’

The parallel syntax between Bislama and Oceanic languages of Vanuatu (Hiw,
Lo-Toga, Araki, Daakaka and others) must be explained by language contact /
areal influence / substratum & adstratum effects / (ongoing) processes of


Alex François

LaTTiCe <http://lattice.cnrs.fr/Francois-Alexandre?lang=en> — CNRS–
–Sorbonne nouvelle
Australian National University
Academia page <https://cnrs.academia.edu/AlexFran%C3%A7ois> – Personal
homepage <http://alex.francois.online.fr/>

On Tue, 11 Dec 2018 at 10:22, Isabelle BRIL <isabelle.bril at cnrs.fr> wrote:

> Dear Jesus
> there are such time“clausal noun-modifying constructions" in a number
> ofOceanic languages from New Caledonia, among which Nêlêmwa
> Bril Isabelle 2002. Le nêlêmwa (Nouvelle-Calédonie). Analyse syntaxique et
> sémantique, p 438-439 in particular.
> (47)     cêê   kââlek        nok   *ni*    *yeewa-t*   *  dua*     hla  yhalap
> hlaabai            kibu-va
>             very  be.plenty  fish    in    time           when  3pl   fish
> those.anaph   ancestors-poss.1pl.excl
>           “there was plenty of fish at the time when our ancestors went
> fishing”
> (49)   hla thoogi-e *n**i khooba yeewa-t* *dua*                   i
> khuwo
>      3pl  call-3sg  in number  time       when(realis)  3sg  eat
>     'someone called him whenever he was eating, "
> (narrative)
> (b)    hla thoogi-e  *ni khooba yeewa-t*   *o*                i     khuwo
>      3pl  call-3sg  in number  time       when(irr)  3sg  eat
>     'someone calls him whenever he eats, "
> (generic)
> (c)    *ni*     *khooba*   *yeewa-t*    *o*                i      khuwo,
> *na*      hla  thoogi-e
>          in     number  time          when(irr) 3sg   eat       then   3pl
> call-3sg
>         'whenever he eats, someone calls  him"
> d)    n*i*     *khooba*   *yeewa-t*   *dua*               i      khuwo,
> *na*       hla  thoogi-e
>         in     number  time          when(real) 3sg   eat       then   3pl
> call-3sg
>         'whenever he was eating, someone called him"
> best
> Le 11/12/2018 à 01:19, Microsoft.com Member a écrit :
> Dear all,
> As you know in many languages temporal, locative, and manner adverbial
> clauses are structurally identical to relative clauses. This structural
> identity between relative clauses and adverbial clauses is not infrequent.
> As Thompson et al. (2007: 245) point out adverbial clauses expressing time,
> location, and manner can commonly be paraphrased, in many languages, “with
> a relative clause with a generic and relatively semantically empty head
> noun: time, place, and way/manner, respectively”.
> I send you this message because currently I am working on a final paper
> for a course I am taking that explores “temporal relatives in the world´s
> languages”, as can be seen in the examples in (1) and (2).
> *Kisi* (Niger-Congo/Mel; Childs 1995: 287)
> (1)       ŋ̀                      cò        cììkìáŋ, *lɔ́ɔ́*       ŋ̀
>                  cò       hùnɔ́ɔ́-*ó*.
>             1pl.sbj            aux     meet       time     2sg.sbj
> aux     come-rel
>             ʻWe will see  you when you come.ʼ
> *Araki* (Austronesian/Oceanic: Vanuatu; François 2002: 182)
> (2)       mo                vari-a               nunu
>             3sg.real       take-3sg          shadow
>             ʻHe took the photo
>             *lo       dani*     no-m̈am        ta         mo
>                 pa        m̈is      m̈audu             ro.
>             loc     day      poss-1exc.pl  dad      3sg.real        seq
> still      live                  prog
>             at the time our father was still aliveʼ
> What I have found so far is that this construction seems to be very
> frequent in many African (e.g. Eton, Koyra Chiini, Jalkunan, Fongbe, etc)
> and Oceanic languages (e.g. Daakaka, Toqabaqita, 'Are'are, etc.). I was
> wondering if you are aware of:
>    1. any paper(s) that has explore this type of construction.
>    2. any languages that have this type of construction.
> Any help will be appreciated!
> Best,
> --
> Jesús Olguín Martínez
> Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Linguistics
> *University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)*
> http://www.linguistics.ucsb.edu/people/jesús-olguín-martínez
> *References*
> Childs, G. Tucker. 1995. *A Grammar of Kisi: A Southern Atlantic Language*.
> Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
> François, Alexandre. 2002. *Araki: A Disappearing Language of Vanuatu*.
> (Pacific Linguistics, 522.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian
> Studies, Australian National University.
> Thompson, Sandra, Longacre, Robert & Hwang, Shin. 2007. Adverbial Clauses.
> In *Language Typology and Syntactic Description, Volume I**I: Complex
> Constructions*, Timothy Shopen (ed.), 237-300. Cambridge: Cambridge
> University Press.
> _______________________________________________
> Lingtyp mailing listLingtyp at listserv.linguistlist.orghttp://listserv.linguistlist.org/mailman/listinfo/lingtyp
> --
> Isabelle Bril
> Directeur de recherches (LACITO-CNRS)
> Directeur d'Etudes à l'EPHE (Typologie et Typologie des langues austronésiennes)
> Directrice de la fédération de recherches Typologie et Universaux des Langues (FR2559 CNRS)http://www.typologie.cnrs.fr/
> Ecole de typologie ESSLT 2016 https://typoling2016.sciencesconf.org/
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