[Lingtyp] Co-expression of future and past

Don Killian donald.killian at helsinki.fi
Fri Jan 4 09:47:43 UTC 2019

Dear Lauren,

Apologies for the delay, but I thought to point out two things that 
might be of interest.

First, According to Aviles (2008), Dar Daju Daju is a language which has 
present and non-present forms of verbs. The default interpretation is 
generally past tense, but if an irrealis particle ki is added to the 
clause, it gives a future interpretation.

In Balantak, you actually find a present vs non-present distinction in 
demonstratives (van den Berg & Busenitz 2012). Non-perceived 
demonstratives refer to something out of view, and non-present forms add 
a component indicating that the referent is no longer in the location, 
or not yet in the location. Something slightly similar occurs in the 
demonstrative system of Sakao (Guy 1974).



Aviles, Arthur J. 2008. The phonology and morphology of the Dar Daju 
Daju language. MA thesis, University of North Dakota.

van den Berg, René and Robert Busenitz. 2012. A grammar of Balantak. SIL 

Guy, J.B.M. 1974. A Grammar of the Northern Dialect of Sakao. Canberra, 
Pacific Linguistics Series B.

On 11.12.2018 1:37, Lauren Reed wrote:
> Dear colleagues,
> My colleague Alan Rumsey and I are working on a small sign language in 
> Western Highlands, Papua New Guinea. The language has a marker which 
> appears to express either remote future or remote past. This 
> co-expression is attributed by users to the fact that both far future 
> and far past events occur many sleep-wake cycles from now.
> I am interested in hearing of any other examples you may be aware of 
> where languages overtly mark both future and past with the same marker 
> (whether this be remote or not).
> Best regards
> Lauren
> *---*
> *Lauren Reed*
> *Australian National University
> *
> *laurenwreed.com <http://laurenwreed.com>*
> *+61 438 583 808*
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