[Lingtyp] Affectionate or sympathy marking

Paolo Ramat paoram at unipv.it
Thu Jan 12 10:38:02 UTC 2023

Italian (and Dutch) make use of suffixes to denote sympathy, empathy or
il cagn*etto,*  il cagno*lino *"the little dog" (Dutch -*tje*, -*kje *etc.).
Wolfgang Dressler and his team have many publications on this.
Prof. Dr. Paolo Ramat
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Socio corrispondente
'Academia Europaea'
'Societas Linguistica Europaea', Honorary Member
Università di Pavia (retired)
Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori (IUSS Pavia) (retired)

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Il giorno gio 12 gen 2023 alle ore 11:10 Christian Döhler <
christian.doehler at posteo.de> ha scritto:

> Dear colleagues,
> I am looking for publications that address the difference between (1) and
> (2). In (2), the English adjective *poor* is used to signal the speaker's
> sympathy or affection towards the dog.
>    1. *The dog is waiting for its owner.*
>    2. *The poor dog is waiting for its owner.*
> While English (and my native German) does this by extending the meaning of
> the adjective *poor *(and *arm* in German), other languages have special
> words with only that meaning. For example, Komnzo *bana *is a postposed
> adjective that only conveys sympathy.
> *    ni bananzo namnzr karen.*
>     ni           bana=nzo        na\m/nzr                       kar=en
>     1NSG    SYMP=only     1PL:NPST:IPFV/stay    village=LOC
>     'Only we poor guys stay behind in the village' (subtext: 'while the
> others are going to the celebration in the neighbouring village')
>     (NSG = non-singular, SYMP = sympathy marker, NPST = nonpast)
> Yet other languages seem to have special verb morphology for this. Van
> Tongeren describes this for Suki (her PhD grammar will probably be
> available later this year).
> Pointers to more examples and publications of this are most welcome. I was
> googling this with keywords like "sympathy", "empathy", "affection", but
> with not much luck. So there might be a whole literature on this phenomenon
> under different terminology. If that's the case, then please excuse my
> ignorance.
> Very Best,
> Christian
> --
> Dr. Christian Döhler
> Leibniz-Zentrum Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (ZAS)
> Schützenstraße 18
> 10117 Berlin
> Raum: 445
> Tel.: +49 30 20192 412https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9659-5920
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